Industry 4.0 is an opportunity for China to achieve leapfrog development
Recently, the "China Listed Companies Blue Book: China Listed Companies Development Report (2015)" seminar jointly organized by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Research Center for Listed Companies and the Social Sciences Literature Press was held in Beijing.
The report pointed out that the upcoming year 2015 was the year when the Internet expanded from the consumer sector to the corporate sector. However, China's listed companies in science, education, culture and health have not yet reached the level of development of the Internet economy 1.0, and urgently need to keep up. Industry 4.0 is an opportunity for China to achieve leapfrog development. It is necessary to promote Industry 3.0 and Industry 4.0 at the same time.
The Internet has expanded from the consumer sector to the corporate sector in 2015. The report pointed out that the “Internet” in 2015 will present three major characteristics.
First of all, the industrial Internet will accelerate its development. 2015 will be the year when the Internet expands from the consumer sector to the corporate sector. The core of the industrial Internet is to use the Internet to reshape the value chain. For example, in the production process, an intelligent control system is established to improve the efficiency of the production process; in the circulation process, the Internet is used. Marketing and channel construction, reduce the cost of information asymmetry; consider user experience in product design, and design products in a targeted manner (such as meeting the needs of long-tail customers). Companies that first touch the Internet can use their rich industry experience to upgrade their production, sales and products, and gain recognition from the capital market.
Second, the consumption structure is upgraded through the Internet. With the acceleration of urbanization and population aging, the demographic structure will become the decisive force for China's consumption growth in the future. The new generation of consumer groups are deeply affected by the Internet, and they have higher requirements for product quality, payment methods and consumer behavior feedback , The Internet will enhance consumers’ willingness to consume, help meet consumers’ individual needs, and share consumer experience. There will be more and more small and beautiful companies that meet the complex needs of customers.
Finally, the business model will extend from online to offline, and O2O will become the focus of development. O2O is the carrier and link through which mobile Internet technology spreads to the daily lives of residents. What O2O changes is not only one more application, but also a change in business scenarios.
At the same time, the report pointed out that China's listed service companies in the field of science, education, culture and health are in urgent need of further improvement in terms of the level of Internet economic development, human capital accumulation and intellectual capital production efficiency. After the global financial crisis, the science, education, culture, and health listed companies in China's Internet economy have relatively stable, high growth in operating income and good profitability, but this is mainly due to the relatively concentrated demand in the thick tail market that they face. Opportunities for scale expansion. The high operating cost as a percentage of operating income fully shows that the listed companies of science, education, culture and health in China's Internet economy have not yet reached the development level of Internet economy 1.0.
The report pointed out that my country has become the world's largest manufacturing country, but it is still at the middle and low end of the global industrial chain division of labor, and the level of industrial technology is relatively backward. From the specific data, China's industrial value-added rate is only 26.5%, which is far lower than the level of 35%-40% in developed countries; the energy consumption per unit value-added of manufacturing is 9 times that of Japan, 6 times that of Germany, and 4 times that of the United States. many. Extensive growth methods have brought problems such as overcapacity, high energy consumption, and high pollution, which have affected industrial development and restricted China's economy.
At the same time, with the gradual disappearance of the demographic dividend, the reduction of labor supply, the increase of labor costs, and the decline of the new generation of labor in the manufacturing industry, the advantages of China's manufacturing industry are gradually weakening. According to the data provided by the United Nations "World Population Outlook", structural indicators such as the proportion of my country's working-age population and population dependency ratio will be reversed around 2015, and the demographic dividend will accelerate until it becomes a population liability. Labor shortage, cost increase, overcapacity and global economic weakness have restricted the development of China's manufacturing industry. New economic strategies proposed by Europe and the United States have also accelerated the weakening of China's comparative cost advantage. China's manufacturing industry is facing huge challenges. Data show that my country's industrial growth rate has shifted from a high speed of more than 10% in the past to a medium-to-high speed level of less than 10%; the proportion of industry in GDP also shows a downward trend, from more than 40% in the past to 35.8% in 2014.
In the face of various pressures, the transformation and upgrading of manufacturing to automated and intelligent production has become an inevitable trend. Developed countries have previously promoted industrial restructuring through industrialization and informatization to achieve transformation and upgrading. With the development of Internet technology, cloud computing and big data technology, the manufacturing industry in developed countries has begun to evolve from informatization to intelligence, the so-called Industry 4.0. Compared with developed countries, my country's industrialization process has not yet been completed, and most industries are still at the stage of Industry 3.0 or even Industry 2.0.
Therefore, for the process of China's Industry 4.0, we need to walk on "two legs": On the one hand, for backward industries that have not yet achieved automated production and remain in the 2.X stage of industry, we should vigorously develop automation and informatization to make them quickly upgrade. To the stage of Industry 3.0; on the other hand, for manufacturing enterprises that are in the stage of Industry 3.X with a high degree of automation, they should promote the integration of industrialization and informatization, develop and utilize technologies such as networking, digitization, and intelligence, and insist on intelligent transformation. Achieve overtaking in curves.
Zhang Ping, the editor-in-chief of the report and deputy director of the Institute of Economics of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, emphasized that although my country's manufacturing industry is facing great challenges, my country's comparative advantages determine that this industrial transformation is also a favorable opportunity to achieve leapfrog development. China is the number one manufacturing country in the world. It has established a complete manufacturing system with complete categories and complete supporting facilities. Its industrial scale and product export volume rank first in the world. At the same time, the strength of China's Internet industry is second only to the United States, with large domestic application market space and innovation traction. Strong. At present, it is necessary to combine the advantages of industrial scale with the application advantages of the Internet to promote the acceleration of the integration of my country's Internet and industry, and embark on a new industrial transformation path that conforms to international development trends and can give full play to my country's comparative advantages.